Home Cancer Treatments WHEN YOUR BODY FIGHTS CANCER: FIVE THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT IMMUNOTHERAPY

WHEN YOUR BODY FIGHTS CANCER: FIVE THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT IMMUNOTHERAPY

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Through research, cancer treatment is changing for the better. Treatment is more about creating a tailored treatment plan that is specific to the genetic makeup of each patient’s particular tumor, not about the type of cancer. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery have been the major forms of cancer treatment for decades, and while better understanding the human body, researchers can harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer. I found. Cancer of blood, colorectal, bladder, kidney, etc. Known as immunotherapy, it is a rapidly growing element of cancer treatment.

To commemorate June’s Immunotherapy Awareness Month, here are five things you need to know about immunotherapy and cancer.

1. What is immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that strengthens the body’s own defenses to fight disease at the cellular level. This treatment uses substances that are naturally produced or developed in the laboratory to enhance the immune system’s response to fighting cancer cells.

2. How can immunotherapy help treat cancer?

When the immune system encounters unknown entities such as viruses and bacteria, it recognizes them as threats and enters combat mode until the body is healthy again. However, in the case of diseases such as cancer, these cells are descendants of normal cells, making it difficult for the body to recognize these cells as a threat.

Immunotherapy activates specific parts of the patient’s immune system to recognize markers on cancer cells. This helps the body recognize and attack those cells. It limits the ability of the cancer to spread by stopping or slowing its growth.

Immunotherapy given as IV, oral, topical, or intravesically (directly to the bladder) can also protect normal cells. This is different from chemotherapy, which does not effectively distinguish between cancer cells and normal cells.

3. Are there different types of immunotherapy used to treat cancer?

Most immunotherapeutic treatments fall into five major categories.

• Monoclonal antibodies: Cancer cells have proteins on the surface of the cells called antigens. Monoclonal antibodies target tumors by attaching directly to specific antigenic proteins in the tumor. Monoclonal antibodies of the type, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, disrupt the cancer cell’s defenses against the immune system, allowing the body to limit the growth of the cancer and destroy it.

• Adoptive cell therapy: This therapy collects lymphocytes directly from the patient, a type of leukocyte in the immune system that makes antibodies, kills tumor cells, and controls the immune response. The collected lymphocytes are modified in the laboratory to be sensitized to cancer cells, proliferated, and then re-administered to the patient as a form of immunotherapy for the cancer. One example is chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (CAR-T cell therapy). It is a personalized treatment that removes the patient’s immune cells from the body, reprograms the genes, and injects them into the body to identify and attack the cancer.

• Cancer vaccines: People diagnosed with cancer are given cancer vaccines that help increase the body’s ability to fight the growth of tumors, limit the spread of cancer cells, and reduce the risk of recurrence. These vaccines can also be tailored to the patient’s immune system. That is, it combines the individual cancerous tissue of the patient with substances that fight the cancer. Many types of cancer vaccines are currently under development that induce specific immune responses that can selectively eliminate target cells, such as peptides and dendritic cell vaccines.

• Non-specific immunotherapies (cytokines): These therapies strengthen the immune system and increase the response to cancer cells in a more general way. Small proteins called cytokines, which are important in controlling the growth and activity of other immune system cells and blood cells, activate a wide range of immune cells with the potential benefit of fighting cancer. These can be given as first-line treatment, but most are given in combination with other treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation.

• T cell promoter: Some therapeutic agents restore or promote T cell activity and help overcome the defense of cancerous tumor cells.

4. Who is the target of immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy has proven to be an effective treatment for certain types of cancer that are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The decision to use immunotherapy to treat cancer can depend on the type of cancer, biomarkers, stage, and other existing medical conditions. For example, immunotherapy may not be recommended for people who have an active autoimmune disease during treatment.

5. What are the benefits and side effects of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer?

Immunotherapy can be used alone or in combination with other types of treatment. This treatment can also train the immune system to remember cancer cells, resulting in longer lasting remissions. Other benefits of immunotherapy include:

• Stimulate the patient’s immune system and work hard or wisely to attack cancer cells.

• Artificial immune system Strengthens the patient’s immune system with proteins.

• Overcome the defense of cancer cells against the human immune system.

All patients respond differently to immunotherapy, with side effects ranging from mild to severe and transient to irreversible. The key to managing these is understanding what you expect and discussing various risk factors with your doctor. Side effects include:

• Skin rash

• Stomach, bowel, or liver problems

• Dyspnea

• Unbalanced thyroid hormone levels

• Flu-like symptoms

If cancer is diagnosed, the treatment team discusses which immunotherapy will benefit you and develops a customized plan based on the tumor and stage, baseline health, and treatment goals.

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